In wise democracy theory, “Participation” and “Random Selection” assume that the people who participate somehow reflect the values and interests of the larger population (an assumption similar to the logic of electoral representation). I’m noticing references that challenge that notion, such as http://www.buergerhaushalt.org/en/article/participatory-budgeting-its-critics-see-it and https://equalitybylot.wordpress.com/2017/02/17/explaining-non-participation-in-deliberative-mini-publics/#more-9233. While not invalidating the idea of participation, such commentaries reveal some of the complexity of actually implementing participatory regimes – whether randomly selecting a few dozen or thousand citizens or offering open forums. To the extent the WD vision involves giving equal or greater power to participatory regimes than to elected/bureaucratic regimes, the representativeness and wisdom (and economy) of participatory regimes need to be debugged, improved, and clarified. I am posting this issue in the forum to encourage commentaries that clarify this issue and/or offer suggestions on how to better address (or view) its challenges.